Photo (from left): Gretchen Helmke, Former President Gustavo Noboa, Shawn Ling Ramirez

Mechanisms for Mediation

Several mediated talks between Peru and Ecuador broke down between the 1995 Peruvian-Ecuadorian Cenepa War and the successfully mediated 1998 Brasilia Accords. I investigated whether and how three different mechanisms for mediation (information transmission, side payments, and audience costs) played a role in the success of the 1998 accords, while allowing for the failures of the prior mediation efforts.


Primary sources include interviews with:


• The foreign minister who brokered the final settlement, Jose Ayala Lasso

• Members of government involved in the failed mediation attempts during the 1995 to 1998 period: Rosalia Arteaga (Vice President from 1996 to 1997, President for two days in 1997); Fabian Alarcon (President of Congress from 1995 to 1997, President from 1997 to 1998); Gustavo Noboa (Vice President in 1998)

• The General of the Army in charge of the 1995 war, Gen. Paco Moncayo Gallegos


Power Sharing and the Role of Audiences in International Behavior

Ecuador has a history of territorial conflict that extends back to its establishment in 1830, as well as a history of constitutional change (19 constitutions with its most recent in 2008). In addition, Ecuador's history also has experienced variations in de jure and de facto power, especially as constitutions were not strongly enforced until the indigenous movement in the early 90s. This variation in the powers of the leader, and the constant source of potential international conflict allow for analysis over time from within a single state of how changes to the powers of the leader affect international war and peacemaking.

I used interviews with members of government to examine three things: the power relationship between the leader and other governing bodies; the extent to which the leader faced full or shared responsibility for international outcomes; and the e
ect of these on the leader's decisions in international war and peacemaking. In addition, I examined the extent to which international outcomes played a role in a
ecting the leader's tenure and public opinion, alongside and often in conjunction with other critical issues such as the economy or corruption.

To draw comparisons over time across various institutionalized rules, changes in de facto and de jure power, and changes in Ecuador's international war and peacemaking behavior, primary sources were interviews drawn from as broad a spectrum as possible. Interviews include members of government from a variety of political positions that held office throughout Ecuador's recent history, from the late 80s to the present day. These include former presidents, vice presidents, members of Congress, writers of constitutions, leaders of political parties, military members, scholars, and journalists.


Full List of Interviews Conducted


Interviews included: members of government, military members, party leaders, scholars, and journalists.

* Indicates the interview was recorded.


Members of Government


             Presidents, and Vice Presidents

* Lucio Gutierrez - Former President from 2003 to 2005, former Army Colonel and key member of the coup d'etat that deposed President Mahuad in January 2000

* Gustavo Noboa - Former President from 2000 to 2003, former Vice President from 1998 to 2000

* Fabian Alarcon - Former President from 1997 to 1998, former President of Congress from 1995 to 1997

* Rosalia Arteaga - Former Vice President from 1996 to 1997, served as President for two days in 1997, again Vice President from 1997 until her resignation in March 1998

* Rodrigo Borja - Former President from 1988 to 1992, former Congressman until 1982, founder and former leader of the Democratic Left Party (ID)


             Government Ministers

* Jose Ayala Lasso - Three time former Minister of Foreign A
airs who brokered the peace agreement     in 1998 between Peru and Ecuador, twice President of the UN Security Council

* Rene Ramirez - Current Cabinet Member serving as the National Secretary of Planning and Development



* Wilfredo Lucero - President of Congress, active in dialogues between Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and the U.S.

* Fabian Alarcon - Former President from 1997 to 1998, former President of Congress from 1995 to 1997



* Jose Vincente Troya - Supreme Court President

* Carlos Solarzano - Former Supreme Court judge

* Alberto Wray - Former Supreme Court judge


             Constituent Assembly (assigned the task of rewriting the Constitution, 2007 -2008)

* Alberto Acosta - Drafted the current Constitution with President Correa, former President of the Constituent Assembly

* Diego Ordonez - Member of the Constituent Assembly


Military Members


* Paco Moncayo Gallegos - Retired Army General during the 1995 Cenepa War, twice Mayor of Quito, Ecuador

* Lucio Gutierrez - Former Army Colonel and key member of the coup d'etat that deposed President Mahuad in January 2000, former President from 2003 to 2005


Party Leaders


* Rodrigo Borja - Founder and former leader of the Democratic Left Party (ID), former Congressman until 1982, former President from 1988 to 1992

* Andres Paez - Leader of the Democratic Left Party (ID)

* Raul Baca - Leader of the Democratic Left Party (ID), former energy minister

* Marco Proano - Leader of the Movement for Democratic Vindication (MRD) Party

* Diego Delgado - Presidential candidate for the Minority Integration and Social Transformation Movement (MITS)




Cesar Montufar - Professor of International Relations and Democratic Theory, Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar, Quito, Ecuador

Simon Pachano - Professor of Political Science at Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), Quito, Ecuador

* Augustin Grijalva - Professor of Economic Law, Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar, Quito, Ecuador

* Alexandra Vela - Political analyst with Cordes, a think-tank in Quito

* Hernan Salgado Pesantes - Judge, Scholar of the Judiciary and Constitutional Law




* Jose Hernandez - Political analyst and journalist for a political weekly magazine Revista Vanguardia, Quito, Ecuador

* Thalia Flores y Flores - Political journalist for daily newspaper Diario Hoy, Ecuador

* Miguel Rivadineira - Chief editor of the daily newspaper El Comercio in Quito, Ecuador, political reporter, and director of two news radio stations (Noticias de la Agencia Ecuaradio: Radio Quito y Radio Platinum 90.9 FM)


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Text Box: Field Work

 Ecuador, July - Aug. 2008

I investigated reasons for the success of the mediated 1998 Brasilia Accords.  I also investigated how changes in de jure and de facto powers alter the responses of governing bodies to domestic pressure. 


Below is a description of how this trip addressed each of these topics, as well as a full list of interviews. 


Mechanisms for Mediation

Powers of the Leader and International Behavior

Full List of Interviews Conducted