- academic year
An academic year straddles two calendar years. Drop the first two digits of the second year and connect with an en-dash.
See class year.
Precedes the year, no comma.
The skeleton dates to A.D. 800.
C.E.(Common Era) is also acceptable usage.
Ages follow the rules for numbers. Spell out nine and under, use figures for the rest.
It was sad to watch the two-year-old boy struggle with his crutches.
Her daughter turned five last month.
When he was 16, he learned to drive.
- area code
The University area code is (585).
In general publications, when using University phone numbers in running text, use the complete phone number including area code (585). For internal publication, like Currents, the use of University extensions (x5-5277) is acceptable.
Follows year or century; no comma.
painted in the ninth century B.C.
died in 12,500 B.C.
B.C.E. (Before Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) are also acceptable usage.
- biblical references
In citing passages from the Bible, use book, chapter, and verse; roman type, no abbreviations.
2 Chronicles 7:14
Lowercase; spell out under 10.
- class year
When referring to an alumnus in text, include the last two digits of his or her class year after the name with an apostrophe.
Patricia Kraut Mossel ’55 will retire at the end of the year.
When referring to an alumnus with multiple degrees, list the degrees in the order in which they were received.
"You have to drink tea everywhere, all day," says Pelin Aylangan ’90, ’98S (MBA), an expert on tea and Turkish culture.
When referring to a couple who are both University alumni, use the following construction:
Henry '70 and Marlene Herman Etlinger '70
- compound adjectives
Hyphenate most compounds with a number as the first element.
20th-century art; second-highest mountain
BUT 10 percent reduction; $100 million grant
Follow the month-day-year sequence when writing dates in text. The year is set off by commas.
The events of December 7, 1941, will long live in infamy.
BUT if the day is not specified then there is no comma before or after the year.
The events of December 1941 will long live in infamy.
Do not write the date as an ordinal number.
December 7, not December 7th
- en-dash (–)
An en-dash is used to connect continuing or inclusive numbers, replacing
the word to in dates, times, or reference numbers. It is also used
instead of a hyphen in compound adjectives when one or more of the elements
consists or more than one word.
10 a.m.–5 p.m.
New York–London flight
An en-dash is half the length of an em-dash and longer than a hyphen. In copy it is usually typed as a hyphen. In Web copy, use the HTML code
Spell out and hyphenate when a fraction is used as an adjective and not part of a larger figure.
He was two-thirds finished.
Do not hyphenate when a fraction is used as a noun.
He finished two thirds of the project.
When the denominator itself is hyphenated, drop the hyphen between the numerator and the denominator.
When a fraction is added to a whole number, use figures for the entire number.
He'll be here in 2 1/2 days.
Grade point average. No periods. Acceptable on second reference
He had a 3.4 grade point average in high school.
grades 10 to 12
grade A beef
She is 5 feet, 2 inches tall.
She is a 5-foot, 2-inch woman.
She is 5 foot 2.
She is a 5-foot-2 point guard.
NUMBERS: from twenty-one to ninety-nine, when spelled out, are hyphenated.
FRACTIONS: Hyphenate a fraction when it is used as a adjective (e.g., a two-thirds majority). Write as two words when used as a noun (e.g. two thirds of the participants).
X-TO-Y COMBINATIONS: 16-to-32-year-olds
Use figures for sums of money, except when they begin a sentence. They are
usually treated as singular.
$4; $450; $4 million; 7 cents
The city was advanced a $4.3 million loan.
Fifty thousand dollars was cut from the budget.
About $50 million was stolen.
Numbers between one and nine should be spelled out in text.
Of the seven children in the group, four were girls.
Numbers 10 and above should be figures in text.
There were 12 representatives at the meeting.
However, within a sentence or paragraph, numbers in the same category should
be treated alike. If numerals are used for one of the numbers, all numerals
should be used for consistency sake.
There are 20 graduate students in the biology department, 5 in philosophy, and 17 in mathematics.
At the beginning of a sentence, ALL numbers are spelled out.
Five years from now, the project will be complete.
All the above rules also apply to ordinal numbers.
This is the third time I've told you.
He walked the stairs to the 12th floor.
Do not write the date as an ordinal number.
December 7, NOT December 7th
In most numbers of one thousand or more, commas should be used between groups
of three digits.
The number preceding the word "percent" or the symbol "%" is always a figure. Avoid the use of the percent sign in running text.
Of the people in attendance, 23 percent were under the age of 18.
The figures showed a 3 percent increase over last year.
Percent should be spelled out in text. The number preceding the word "percent"
should always be a figure.
They gave 3 percent of their earnings to charity.
The % sign can be used in charts and tables. Avoid using the % sign in running text.
- phone numbers
In general publications, when using University phone numbers in running
text, use the complete phone number including area code (585). For internal
publications, like Currents, the use of University extensions (x5-5277)
FIGURES: Add "s."
- telephone numbers
See phone numbers.
Use figures for clock time and for hours, minutes, seconds, days, weeks, months and years greater than nine.
3 p.m.; 5:30 a.m.; 6 o'clock; 18 years
Spell out for nine or less, except when a fraction is connected to a whole number or in combination with figures above nine.
She is nine years old.
She lived there for nine years.
The movie lasted three hours.
The movie lasted 2 1/2 hours.
The senator spoke for 2 days and 13 hours.
Avoid such redundancies as 10 o'clock p.m. and 12 noon. Midnight is the end of the day, not the beginning. Do not use 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.. Write noon or midnight.
the year 2000
An academic year straddles two calendar years. Drop the first two digits of the second year and connect with an en dash
See age, dates, academic years.
- ZIP codes
Internal ZIP codes have been set by University Mail Services and box numbers have been issued to all River Campus addresses. Contact Mail Services for a user's guide or check the Web at www.rochester.edu/mailservices/.